Presente/ Present Tense
A verb expresses an action or indicates a state or condition.
An infinitive is the form of a verb that shows no subject or number, such as comprar/ to buy, vender/ to sell, recibir/ to receive.
Verbs consist of a stem, such as compr in comprar, vend in vender, recib in recibir , and an ending, such as -ar, -er, -ir. Stems of regular verbs do not change, but stems of irregular verbs sometimes do change.
Clasificación de los verbos/ Classification of verbs
In Spanish, verbs are classified according to the endings of their infinitive.
- First conjugation: verbs ending in -ar
- Second conjugation: verbs ending in -er
- Third conjugation: verbs ending in -ir
Unlike English, each subject has a distinct verb ending.
Comprar/ to buy
yo compro/ I buy
tú compras/ you buy
él, ella, usted compra/ he, she, you (formal) buy(s)
nosotros compramos/ we buy
vosotros compráis/ you buy
ellos, ustedes compran/ they, you buy
The endings for the second and third groups are identical except for the nosotros and vosotros.
Vender/ to sell Recibir/ to receive
NOTE: In the above examples, to conjugate a verb, the ending of the infinitive (-ar, -er, -ir) is removed and an appropriate ending is added.
The Spanish present tense is equivalent to following 4 forms in English:
Yo firmo el contracto.
I sign the contract.
I do sign the contract.
I am signing the contract.
I will sign the contract. (in the immediate future)
1. It is used to indicate what is happening now.
- Yo como ahora./ I am eating right now.
2. The present tense is also used to express an action that will take place in the immediate future:
- Firmo el contracto mañana./ I will sign the contract tomorrow.
- ¿Quieren cenar conmigo? Will you have dinner with me?
- ¿Escribo el cheque?/ Shall I write the check?
4. This tense is used to indicate habitual actions:
- Los Argentinos cenan alrededor de las 10 de la noche./ Argentines eat dinner around 10 P.M.
- Los españoles duermen una siesta después de almorzar./ Spanish people take a nap after lunch.
NOTE: Since the verb endings indicate who the subject is, the subject pronouns are frequently omitted; however, it is ALWAYS used when there are 2 subjects and 2 verbs.
- Correct: Yo tomo, y ella come./ I drink, and she eats.
- Incorrect: Tomo y come./ I drink, and she eats.
Furthermore, subject pronouns are used to emphasize or clarify a sentence. To further study Pronouns click here.
LESSONS: Bus. Set-up V
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